1 See Mathew E. Hauer, “Migration induced by sea-level rise could reshape the US population landscape,” Nature Climate Change 7.5 (2017): 321–325, and Scott A. Kulp and Benjamin H. Strauss, “New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding,” Nature Communications 10.1 (2019): 4844.

2 IPCC, 2022: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (Cambridge University Press, 2022), 15.

3 Jean-Philippe Guilbault, “La deuxième vie des maisons riveraines,” Récits numériques, Radio-Canada (15 June 2022); Haudenosaunee people are commonly referred to as Iroquois or Six Nations. Haudenosaunee means “people of the longhouse,” which refers to a pre-contact gathering place for northern Iroquoian-speaking peoples. The Haudenosaunee Confederacy refers to the five member nations that live primarily in reserves (Canada) or reservations (United States), in the northern part of New York state, the Haudenosaunee consisted of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk. See: haudenos

4 Alan D. McMillian and Eldon Yellowhorn, First Peoples in Canada (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre 2004).

5 Robert P. C. Joseph, 21 Things You May Not Know About the Indian Act : Helping Canadians Make Reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples a Reality (Port Coquitlam: Indigenous Relations Press, 2018), 27.

6 Erle C. Ellis, “Land Use and Ecological Change: A 12,000-Year History,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 46/1 (2021): 1–33.

7 Rachel Carson, The Sea Around Us (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), 9.

8 United Nations, “Percentage of Total Population Living in Coastal Areas,” un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/methodology_sheets/oceans_seas_coasts/pop_coastal_areas.pdf.

9 The concept of edge ecology was first proposed in relation to plant species; see Frederic E. Clements, The Development and Structure of Vegetation (The Botanical Seminar, 1904). The statement “we are all species of the edge,” was made by landscape ecologist Richard T.T. Forman; see Richard T.T. Forman, Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

10 Maria Kaika, City of Flows : Modernity, Nature, and the City (London : Routledge, 2005).

11 P. Bernatchez, G. Boucher-Brossard, M. Sigouin-Cantin, “Contribution of archives to the study of meteorological and geomorphological events causing damage to the coasts of maritime Québec and analysis of trends, frequencies and return time of extreme weather and marine conditions,” Research Chair in Coastal Geoscience, Laboratory of Dynamics and Integrated Management of Coastal Zones, University of Québec at Rimouski: Report submitted to the Québec Ministry of Public Security (2012), 140.

12 “Doncon voit qu'un peu comme un serpent, la côte qui bouge, certaines zones ont de l'ensable-mentpar moment ça régresse, mais il y ades ondes qui clairement régressent dansle temps et qui deviennent des zones plusfragilisées.” Jean-Philippe Guilbault, “La deuxième vie des maisons riveraines,” Récits numériques, Radio-Canada (15 June 2022); ici.radio-canada.ca/recit-numerique/3969/deplacement-erosion-cotes-marees-fleuve-saint-laurent.

13 Interview, 12 December 2019; originally in French, translation by the author.

14 Interview with Jean-François Fortin, 30 December 2019.

15 The term rewilding first emerged from a collaboration between the conservation biologist Michael Soule and the environmental activist David Foreman in the late 1980s that led to the creation of The Wildlands Project (TWP). See Jamie Lorimer et al., “Rewilding: Science, Practice, and Politics,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 40.1 (2015): 39–62.

16 Brian M. Fagan, Brian, Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000), 470.

17 An excellent critical ethnography of current fishing practices and the effect of commercial fishing: Robert G. Adlam, “Fish Talk,” Anthropologica 44.1 (2002): 99–111.