1 Interview with Pablo Gonzalez, 16 October 2018.

2 Charles Darwin, Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle round the world (London: John Murray, 1876), 519.

3 Ibid., 522.

4 David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World (New York: Vintage, 1997), 15.

5 Paula Miranda, “Violeta Parra, Creative Researcher,” in Violeta Parra: Life and Work, ed. Lorna Dillon (Rochester: Boydell & Bewer, 2017), 83–104.

6 Miranda, “Violeta Parra, Creative Researcher,” 85.

7 Interview with Alejandro Hormazábal,
17 October 2018.

8 Ibid.

9 According to Anna Tsing, supply chains are found in a legal gray zone that offer an intriguing frame to understand capitalism: “One feature of the mid-twentieth century dream of standardized production was the institutional and ideological separation of the ‘economy’ from forms of communal identity and difference—‘culture.’ The economy would be transcendent and forward looking; culture would refer to particularistic communal forms imagined as having less and less relevance in the modern world. Culture would look backward to ‘noneconomic’ forms; the economy could look forward to increasing uniformity and abstraction.” Anna Tsing, “Supply Chains and the Human Condition,” Rethinking Marxism 21.2 (2009): 155.

 10 Thomas Miller Klubock, La Frontera: Forests and Ecological Conflict in Chile’s Frontier Territory (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014), 298–9.

11 Ibid. This comprehensive book was a key reference shared among our research team and provided a historical foundation to first-hand experience on the Chilean plantations. For a longer history of development regimes in South America, see also Eduardo Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent (London: Monthly Review Press, 1973).

12 The Chilean Water Code (1981) is characterized by its privatized approach to water rights. For an excellent overview, see Carl J. Bauer, “The Free-Market Model: Chile’s 1981 Water Code,” in Siren Song: Chilean Water Law as a Model for International Reform (London: Routledge, 2004), 41–60.

13 On toxicity, see: Max Liboiron, Pollution Is Colonialism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2021).

14 Miranda, “Violeta Parra,” 83–104.