In 1876, the Indian Act was passed in Canada, a strategy document for assimilation that centralized the control of 614 first nations bands, spread across the continent. Both policy documents establish the Indian reservation system. Both Acts advanced land-based policies in order to engender human conflict.

By breaking land-based traditions, one people attempts to absorb another. Policy tried to ensure that Indigenous communities could no longer establish or uphold physical or emotional relationships to their lands, insisting that ownership replace tradition, farming replace hunting, and cash replace ritual. In exchange, government negotiators made various false promises to First Nations including the retention of rights to hunting and fishing, farming supplies, forests, plants, and the soil itself. Promises that were broken by more policy. What strikes me as radical about this history is that it is shockingly present. The ongoing legal and socioeconomic impacts of antiquated treaties remain extant in the policy that sustains the reserve system. Centuries of policy require amendments, corrections, and improvements that cement power in layers. It would seem as though the federal regulatory environment figured out how to evolve policy, and in so doing, blocked human evolution.

A rupture twenty-five kilometers deep beneath the Nazca plate, produced the earthquake, triggering a tsunami that traveled along the fault at tectonic junctions. The magnitudinous waves spread beneath the coast until making landfall along the shores between Constitución and Concepción. Magnitude is relative power, and its measurement takes into account the energy released at the source. By comparison, intensity is the strength of the shaking produced by the magnitude.